Thursday, April 21, 2011

Tart/Pastry Crust

Take fyne floure and a curscy of fayre water and a dysche of swete butter and a lyttel saffron, and the yolkes of two egges and make it thynne and as tender as ye maye. (16c English)
3/4 c flour
1 T + 1 t water
1/2 stick = 4 T butter
6 threads saffron
1 egg yolk
Cut butter into flour, then crush saffron into 1 t of water; mix that and the rest of the water with the egg yolk and stir it into the flour-butter mixture. Roll out.

A Tart of Strawberries

Take and strain them with the yolks of four eggs, and a little white bread grated, then season it up with sugar and sweet butter and so bake it. (16c English)
2 c strawberries
4 egg yolks
1/2 c bread crumbs
1/3 c sugar
4 T butter
9" pie shell

Force strawberries through a strainer or run through a blender, then mix with everything else (the butter should be melted). Bake crust for 10 minutes, then put filling into the crust and bake at 375deg. for 20 minutes.

Brie (or Cheese) Tart

tart de bry (14c English)
Take a crust ynche deepe in a trap. Take yolkes of ayren rawe & cheese ruayn & medle it & pe yolkes togyder.

10-12 ounces of semi-soft cheese, such as brie, that's not too soft - you want to be able to cut it into tiny pieces
saffron threads (soaked in 1tsp warm water for 5 minutes)
1 1/2 tsp powdered ginger
3 egg yolks
1/2 - 1  tsp sugar
pinch of salt

Mix egg yolks and saffron (with the water) together. Add the cheese and spices, whisk until smooth and pour into the crust.  Bake at 375 25-30 minutes.  It might puff up a bit, but it does flatton out as it cools.

Tart for an Ember Day

TART IN YMBRE  DAY. XX.VIII. V. (14th c. cookery)  (also, Ember days are fasr days before feast days when meat was not allowed)

Take and parboile Oynouns presse out the water & hewe hem smale. take
brede & bray it in a morter. and temper it up with Ayren. do therto
butter, safroun and salt. & raisouns corauns. & a litel sugur with
powdour douce. and bake it in a trape. & serue it forth.

6-8oz of cheese, grated
1lb onions (about 4 medium)
2 tbs fresh sage or 1 1/2tsp dried
3 tbs butter
4 eggs
1 tb sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp ginger
4 tbs currants
9" pie crust

Chop and boil onions 10 minutes, drain well. Mix everything, put in pie crust and bake at 350 until done (about 50 minutes--knife inserted in center comes out clean)

Bubblie Pies from Pern

"The Dragon Riders of Pern" was my first set of fantasy novels and I still enjoy reading stories of Pern.  In "The Harper Hall" trilogy we get some of the best looks at what they call "gathers" and a popular dessert snack called "bubblie pies".  As an adult I decided I wanted to try and create these bubblie pies myself, only to find out it had already been done.  "The Dragon Lover's Guide to Pern" by Joan Nye with Anne McCaffery included this, as well as other recipes from Pern.

The recipe falls into the "medivelish" catagory.  The ingrediants were all available as was the method of cooking.  To prove this, I once entered this into a medieal cooking contest as a joke. (my real entry was lamb roast stuffed with gingered apples). Unfortunately (sort of) the judges of our event that year had sweet tooths (sweet teeth?) and I was named "Grand Champion" for my bubblie pies and not even a nod to my roast. (I was a bit disappointed, to say the least.  The bubblie pies were a JOKE, for heaven's sake :P)

This recipe makes 6 tarts, that are 5" in diameter.

1/2 cup of butter
2tb sugar
2 1/2 cups flour
1/2 ts salt
1/2 cup cold water

Cut butter in chunks.  Combine dry ingredients. Work in butter with a fork.  Sprinkle with water, mix in. Divide into 12 balls and roll out.

5 cups blueberries (or 20oz frozen) or any berry [I used a mixture of raspberries, blackberries and blueberries]
1 cup sugar
1/4 ts cinnamon
2ts lemon juice
1-2 tb butter

Gently toss berries with sugar and cinnamon in a large bowl.  Sprinkle juice over mixture.  Spoon into crust, dot with butter. Cover with top crust.  Bake 15-20 minutes at 350.  Serve hot.

Hot Pies!

I love pies!  Not just the sweet dessert kind, but the savory dinner kind as well.  Cooking medieval food, I have come across dozens of varieties of meat, egg, cheese, fruit and vegetable pies. Pies are often called "tarts" and if something is served in a "coffyn" then it is a pie with a top crust.

Many of the pies listed below are also part of the "Feasts of Ice and Fire"  collection (Hotpie is actually a minor, but very popular character in the books) but some are from other fantasy books or are modern recipes that are "medievalish"--that is to say they are made with ingredients available in medieval Europe and cooked in a style common then, but no recipe from the middle ages is found.

Bubblie Pies (from Pern)
Spinach Tart
Dothraki Blood Pies
Onion Tart
Tart for an Ember Day
Brie (Cheese) Tart
A Tart of Strawberries

Tart/Pastry Crust

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Spinach Tart

10oz spinach, chopped
4 eggs
1/2 cup milk
8 oz  of  cheese (I normally use cheddar and/or mozzarella)
1/2 t ginger
1teaspoon cinnomon
1 tablespoon sugar
9" pie crust

Cook the empty pie cust for 10 minutes at 400 degrees;
Mix the ingredients and pour into the crust; bake for about 40 minutes at 350 degrees.

This is adapted from a 14th centruy French recipe.  My son will not touch "spinach" so I tell him it is an "oregano pie" and he loves it.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Date Stuffed Pastries

Date stuffed pastries
8 ounces dates, pitted, roughly chopped
1/4 cup water
8 ounces flour
4 ounces butter, chilled, diced
2 teaspoons orange blossom water or rose water
2 tablespoons water
powdered sugar
Combine the dates and 1/4 cup water in a small pan over a gentle heat and cook until softened, then set aside to cool.
Sift the flour into a bowl, and add the diced, chilled butter and rub the butter into the flour until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs.
Combine the orange-blossom water or rose water with the 2 tablespoons of water and sprinkle over the flour; then mix into the flour using a round-bladed knife. Cover the dough and rest for approximately 30 minutes.
Take a spoonful of dough and shape into a round, make a hollow with your finger and spoon a little of the date stuffing into the hollow, then seal the opening and reshape into a round.
Place the pastries on a lightly greased baking sheet, cover loosely with foil and bake in a pre-heated 350°F for 20-25 minutes. Remove the foil about halfway through the cooking, but keep an eye on them to ensure that they do not brown.
Remove and cool on wire racks until firm. When thoroughly cooled, roll in sifted powdered sugar

Stuffed Fried Pastries

Stuffed Fried Pastries

½ cup almonds, ground fine
½ cup walnuts, ground fine
½ cup pine nuts, ground fine
½ cup pistachios, ground fine
¼ cup sugar
2T cinnamon
1 tsp pepper
¾ cup honey
¼ cup whole pine nuts
¼ cup chopped almonds
¼ cup chopped pistachios

3 cups flour
½ cup oil
½ cup water
oil for frying
a few whole pistachios and pine nuts

Mix ground nuts, spices, sugar and honey and knead together.  Add chopped nuts.

Knead flour, oil and water together and refrigerate 20 minutes. Form dough into cylinders about 2 inches long on a ¾” wooden dowel.  Cook, on the dowel, in the hot oil.  Remove from dowel.

Stuff with filling; stop one end with a whole pistachio and the other with a whole pine nut.

*note:  I had the bright idea to mark the dowels with a Sharpie marker to help keep my pastries even sized.  This was note a great idea as they left a mark inside the pastry  (ok, I still ate them, but I certainly wouldn't serve them to anyone else.) I ended up using the other end of the dowel, so it wasn't a problem.

as an alternative, I once tried using Phillo dough, layered with the stuffing in the middle.  I wasn't that pleased with the way it looked when done, but it was still very tastey.  The honey and black pepper are so perfect for a Dothraki treat.

Almond-Honey Pastries

Almond-Honey Pastry
1/2 lb blanched almonds
1/2 t ginger
1 T sugar
scant 1/4 t salt
2/3 c honey
1/4 c Rhine wine
2 c flour

Grind almonds thoroughly: 1/2 lb = 1 1/2 c whole = 2 c ground. Stir together with ginger, sugar and salt. Mix flour with enough water to make a slightly sticky dough. Roll out dough very thin and cut into 2" squares. Place heaped teaspoon of ground almond mix on dough squares. Fold corners to center and seal. Fry in 1/2"-1" of oil in a frying pan until brown, drain on paper towels, then place in baking pan. Heat honey and wine together; pour over fritters and bake at 350deg. for 10 minutes.

Braided Pastries

Braided Pastries

1 lb semolina = 2 3/8 c
1 1/2 c flour
1 c water
leavening: 1 c sourdough starter
1 t salt
3 eggs
1/4 gram saffron (see note)
~1 T oil to brush on
oil for frying
sugar to sprinkle on
1 c honey
1/2 t pepper
1 t cinnamon
1 T lavender

Add water to semolina 1/8 c at a time, mixing, until all of semolina is barely moistened. Add sourdough, 3/4 c flour, and salt, and knead until is is a smooth elastic dough. Crush saffron into 2 t water; add it and eggs to dough and knead in. The dough being too soppy for braiding, add another 3/4 c flour. Leave to rise in a warm place until doubled, about an hour and a half. While the dough rises make the sauce: grind the lavender and add to the honey with the pepper and cinnamon. Flour a cutting board, take small lumps of dough (about 2 tablespoons), roll into 6" strings, and braid three together into braids 6" long. Heat about 1/2" of oil in a frying pan at medium high heat and fry the braids a few at a time, so that there is room to turn them over as they fry, until puffed up and light brown on both sides: about 2-3 minutes total. Makes 15 braids. Drain on paper towels, put on a plate, drizzle with the sauce and sprinkle with a little sugar.

Dothraki Blood Pies


1-2 lbs cubed beef steak
cooking oil

1lb fresh mushrooms
1 large sweet onion
1/4 cup beef blood
hot water
2 pie crust

Coat the steak in flour, salt and pepper.  Heat ½ cup oil to about 350 degrees (very hot, but don’t burn the oil).  Sear the meat fast on both sides.  You only want to brown it, not cook it. Remove from pan and place on a plate.  If blood seeps out, this is fine and can be added to the blood in the gravy.

Leave the oil and drippings in the pan, and sauté the onions and mushrooms.  Wisk 3tbl of floor in 12 oz of hot water, until all lumps are dissolved.  Pour slowly into the pan with the onions and mushrooms, stirring constantly.  Add the blood.  Let the mixture come to a  boil.  Continue stirring.  Once the gravy thickens, simmer.

Return the meant to the gravy.  Simmer over very low heat for about 30 minutes.  If the gravy gets too thick, a little hot water can be added.

Pour into a pie pan, cover with the top pie crust and seal well.  Cut holes in top crust to vent.  Back at 350degrees 30-40 minutes until the pie crust is fully cooked.

"Horseflesh" Roasted with Honey and Peppers

3lb lean roast or steaks (lean beef, venison, bison or buffalo are all suitable replacements for the horseflesh, if so desired)
2tbl Olive Oil
2tbl Honey
¼ cup water
½ tsp Chinese Five Spice
½ tsp crushed red peppers
a few whole dried Asian red peppers (if desired)

Mix all the ingredients (except the meat) well. Place in a plastic bag, add meat and coat well.  Marinade in the refrigerator for a couple of hours.

If a roast, pour marinade over it and cook at 350 until desired doneness.  Steaks can be cooked on a grill. Spoon extra marinade over the steaks after they have been turned.   

Dany's Wedding Feast

When Daenerys marries Droko, her wedding feast is described as horseflesh roasted with honey and peppers; steaming joints of meat; thick black sausages; Dothraki blood pies; fruit; sweetgrass stew; and delicate pastries. I’ve also added flat  bread to the feast. The format of the feast is a lot less formal than those in Westeros.

If there was one feast I'd try and serve up in its entirerty, this would be it.  I'd recommend buying the black sausages and flat breads and using chicken leg quarters for the steaming joints of meat if you were to try it.

Horseflesh Roasted with Honey and Peppers
Steaming Joints of Meat
Thick Black Sausages
Dothraki Blood Pies
Sweetgrass Stew
Flat Bread

Delecate Pastries:
Braided Pastries
Almond Honey Pastries
Stuffed Fried Pastries
Date Stuffed Pastries

Friday, April 8, 2011

Spiced Loaf

½ cup warm water (115)
1 package dry active yeast
½ cup flour
¼ cup butter
¼ cup honey
1 large egg
½ tsp salt
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp ground ginger
½ tsp ground cloves
1 3/4 cup flour
¼ cup chopped walnuts
¼ cup chopped hazelnuts
¼ cup raisins
¼ cup chopped dates
2 tbs melted butter

Dissolve yeast in water; let sit for 5 minutes.  Stir in ½ cup flour, cover with a cloth and let rise 30 minutes.

In large bowl, beat butter until soft; add the honey, egg, salt, ginger and cloves.  Mix well.

Add yeast mixture to honey-butter mixture; gradually mix in remaining flour.  Beat for 5 minutes.
Add the nuts and fruits and mix well.
Cover bowl with a cloth, set in a warm place and let rise for 2 hours.  Punch down dough.
Place in a greased loaf pan, brush with melted butter, cover and let rise for 30 minutes.
Bake at 350 about 30 minutes.  Remove from pan and let cool on wire rack.

Serve with clotted cream, if desired

Baked Pears


10 fresh hard pears
juice of one lemon
1 teaspoon cinnamon

½ cup lentils
½ tsp salt
1 cup beef broth (or water)
¼ cup dates, pitted, finely chopped
½ tsp died sweet basil, crushed

1 cup fresh raspberries
1 tbspoon brown sugar or honey
¼ cup + 1 tbs water

Cut pears in half longwise.  Carefully scoop out the pit and core leaving a uniform ½-3/4 inch wall.  Coat with lemon juice to prevent browning.  Sprinkle lightly with cinnamon.  Bake at 350 5-10 minutes, allowing pears to go from hard to firm.  Do not let them get soft.  Set aside to cool.

Wash lentils and place them in a deep pot with salt, dates, basil and broth to cover by 2 inches.  Bring to a boil, reduce heat to simmer and cook 15-20 minutes.  Add more broth or boiling water if needed. Lentils should be just tender but double their raw size.

Wash berries and remove any extra stems. In a deep pot, bring berries, sugar and water to a quick boil.  Berries will rise and pop. (be careful, berries pop high and hot).  Remove immediately when 1/3 of the berries have popped.  Cool.

Spoon 1 tablespoon of lentils into the pears; top with one teaspoon of raspberries.

Lemon Cakes


1 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup white sugar
2 cups all-purpose flour

4 eggs
1 1/2 cups white sugar
4 tablespoons all-purpose flour (or 5 if using 3 lemons)
2-3 lemons, juiced (1/2-2/3 cup juice)

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
In a medium bowl, blend together softened butter, 2 cups flour and 1/2 cup sugar. Press into the bottom of an ungreased 9x13 inch pan.
Bake for 15 to 20 minutes in the preheated oven, or until firm and golden. In another bowl, whisk together the remaining 1/12 cups sugar and 1/4 cup flour. Whisk in the eggs and lemon juice. Pour over the baked crust.
Bake for an additional 20 minutes in the preheated oven. The bars will firm up as they cool.
Sprinkle with sifted powdered sugar

Roasted Onions in Brown Gravy


2 pounds purple or other sweet onions (about 6)
3 tablespoons fat (saved from the pork roast)
3 tablespoons flour
1⁄2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
2 cups warm meat broth

Wrap each onion in foil and roast at 500degrees for about an hour or until tender.  Take the onions from the oven and unwrap them.  The skin should be blackened and caramelized. Once the onions are cool enough to handle, peel off the skins.
Place fat in pan on medium and add flour and seasonings, stirring until smooth. Heat until bubbly and slightly brown. Stir in the broth until sauce thickens. Continue cooking, stirring constantly for 2-3 minutes.
Place the onions in a casserole dish, pour the gravy over the onions.  Place them in the oven at 350 until heated through. (10-15 minutes)

Honey Roasted Chicken

1 whole chicken (about 3 lbs)
1/2 cup vegetable oil
1/4 cup cider vinegar
4 tablespoons honey
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon

Mix all the ingredients (except the chicken)
Put chicken on a rack in a shallow pan, brush with the mixture.
bake @350 for about 1 and a 1/2 hours (to 160) until the juices run clear, basting several

times with the mixture.
note: you can use cut up chicken too.

Roast Beef with Mushrooms in Wine Sauce


1 1/2 lbs. rare roast beef, cut into 1/2" strips
1 lb. fresh mushrooms, sliced
3 shallots or 1 sm. red onion, finely chopped
3 tbsp. butter
1/2 c. port or Marsala wine
1/2 tsp. prepared mustard
Salt & fresh ground pepper to taste
1 Baked pastry shell

Heat 1 tablespoon butter in skillet; add shallots and mushrooms and sauté until golden brown. Add beef, wine and increase heat, stir until reduced to half. Add remaining butter and stir quickly into mixture. Serve immediately in warm pastry shell

Honeyed Carrots


1 lb. sm. carrots
Boiling salted water
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp. honey
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. ground ginger

Wash and peel carrots; slice diagonally. Cook covered in 1-inch of boiling salted water until almost tender.
In medium skillet, melt butter with honey, salt, and ginger. When blended, add drained carrots and cook, stirring frequently, until carrots are glazed and tender.

Baked Sole Stuffed with Crab



6 small sole fillets
2 tablespoons melted butter
Salt and pepper to taste
1 lemon

For  the stuffing:
2 tablespoons butter
½ medium onion, chopped
1 stalk celery, chopped
1 shallot, chopped
¼ medium green bell pepper, chopped
2 oz fresh mushrooms, sliced
½ garlic clove, pressed
½ tablespoon flour
¼ cup white wine
¼ cup milk
6 oz crabmeat
¼ cup seasoned breadcrumbs
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
½ lightly beaten egg
2 oz Parmesan cheese

Preheat the oven to 375ºF. Grease a baking dish with the melted butter. To make the stuffing, sauté the celery, onion, shallot, garlic, bell pepper, mushrooms and garlic in the butter until tender. Blend in the flour. Add the wine and milk. Stir until thick. Remove from the heat and add the rest of the ingredients. Combine well.

Stuff the sole fillets with 2 tablespoons of the stuffing mixture each. Fold the fillets over and press the edges to seal. You can use a toothpick to secure them if necessary. For smaller fillets, you can place one over the other with the stuffing in between them. Bake, covered, for 25 minutes.

Onion Tart


(this is a variation on the 'Tart for an Ember day')

4 onions
6 eggs (beaten)
2T butter  
2T sugar
2T cup currants
1/4 tsp ginger
3/4 tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp dried sage leaves
1 deep dish 9" pie crust

Parboil onions (about 10 minutes).
Remove onions from heat, drain, and chop
Mix all ingredients.
Pour into pie shell.
Bake at 350deg for 50 to 55 minutes (top will be brown; a knife inserted into the top should come out clean.

Roast Prime Ribs


1 (3 rib) roast of beef (without short ribs)
Coarsely cracked black pepper

Preheat oven to 500 degrees. Remove roast from refrigerator and place in a shallow open roasting pan. Sprinkle with flour and rub into the meat. Season generously with salt and pepper. Place a tent of aluminum foil loosely over the top of the roast. Place in an extremely hot 500 degree oven. Roast for 8 minutes per pound for rare.
When roasting time is up, turn off oven heat. Do not open oven door. Let roast remain in the oven at least 1 hour. Standing time and individual oven differences will determine degree of rareness in center of roast.

Armored Turnips


1 lb. turnips (5 small)
2 Tbsp. butter
10 oz. cheddar cheese
1/4 tsp. ginger
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. pepper

Boil turnips about 30 minutes, then peel and slice thin. Put a light layer of melted butter on the bottom of a 9" x 5" baking pan. Layer turnip slices, sliced cheese and spices in pan, and bake 30 minutes at 350 degrees.

Tarragon Lemon Salmon Fillets


4 salmon fillets
tarragon, fresh
lemon slices
garlic powder

Place salmon skin side down on tin foil in baking sheet; cover with butter, then put seasoning on to taste.
Cover fish with lemon slices and tent the fish in tin foil, and bake at 375°F degrees for 20-30 minutes.

Vegetable Beef Soup with Barley


2 or 3 1-inch thick beef shank sections (1.5 to 2 lbs)
2 small cans mushrooms
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
6-8 cups vegetable broth/stock
1 bag frozen mixed vegetables
1/4 cup pearl barley
1/2 cup tomato puree

tarragon, thyme, garlic, salt and pepper to taste

Trim the meat from the bones, and then cut it into small cubes. Brown it in a large skillet or in the bottom of a dutch oven. Add onions and mushrooms and sauté until onions are starting to toast. Add 6 cups stock. Add mixed vegetables, tomato puree and seasonings.
Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally; reduce heat and simmer for an hour, adding water as necessary to have enough stock. Add barley, simmer for another hour.
Hint: adding the barley about an hour before the finish keeps it from becoming too mushy.

Roast Duck with Orange Sauce


1 (4-5 lb.) duck,
1 orange, sliced into quarters
Salt, pepper & poultry seasoning

Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Wash duck in cold water and remove excess fat. Season the inside cavity and the outside of duck with salt, pepper and poultry seasoning. Place orange quarters inside duck and place in a shallow roasting pan. Cook in hot oven for 30 minutes, then remove duck from oven and prick breast with heavy tine kitchen fork to drain grease.
Turn oven down to 300 degrees and return duck to oven for 1 hour or 1 hour and 15 minutes until tender.
1/2 c. sugar
1 tbsp. wine vinegar
Juice of 2 oranges
1 bay leaf
1/2 tsp. thyme leaves
Salt & pepper to taste
1/2 c. Grand Marnier
Grated rind of 1 orange

In a heavy saucepan, combine sugar and wine vinegar. Cook the mixture over a medium flame until sugar melts and begins to caramelize.
Add the juice of 2 oranges, Grand Marnier and grated orange rind. Stir well and cook for five minutes.
Add 1/4 cup orange peel cut into julienne strips, cooked in a little water for five minutes and drained.
Correct the seasonings to taste and pour over the duckling on a serving platter.

Roast Pork with Sauces


Place the roast on a rack in a shallow baking dish.  Rub with sea salt, sprinkle with herbs, if desired.  Bake at 325 until the internal temperature reaches 160 on a meat thermometer

Current Sauce (for roast)

2 cups currents
2 cups red wine
1 tbs sugar
1/8 tsp ground cloves
2/3 cup broth
Soak the currents in wine for 3 hours;  Combine all ingredients in a porcelain pot  and simmer for 10 minutes. Continue simmering to reduce sauce, if a thicker consistency is desired.  Serve warm over meat.

Mustard Sauce
1 tablespoon butter or margarine
1 tablespoon all-purpose flour
1 tablespoon ground mustard
1/3 cup water
1/3 cup vinegar
1/4 cup sugar
1/3 cup mayonnaise
In a saucepan, melt butter. Stir in flour and mustard until smooth. Add water, vinegar and sugar; mix well. Bring to a boil; cook and stir for 2 minutes or until slightly thickened. Remove from the heat; add mayonnaise and mix well.

Spicy Whitefish


24 ounces whitefish or other mild fish
1/4 cup lemon juice
1/4 cup vegetable oil
2 tablespoons low sodium soy sauce
2 tablespoons fresh ginger finely chopped or 2 teaspoon ground ginger
6 garlic cloves, finely chopped, about 1 Tbsp
3 green onion chopped, green and white parts
1 teaspoon onion powder
1 teaspoon Paprika
1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper, adjust to taste
Combine lemon juice, soy sauce, vegetable oil, ginger, garlic, green onions, minced onion, paprika and cayenne pepper and stir to mix well.
Place fish in a zipper seal bag and pour liquid mixture over it. Seal and marinate in the refrigerate for about 1 to 2 hours.
Oil grill grate or fish basket really well and preheat grill to medium high. Grill fish for 4 minutes on each side. Flip the fish only once and brush with reserved marinade when flipped.
NOTE: Fish is completely cooked when the color turns from translucent to opaque (white) or has reached a 150 degree F internal temperature. Resist the temptation to over-cook fish until it "flakes," which indicates the fish is becoming dry.

Rye Bread and Spreads

2 packages active dry yeast
1/2 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C)
1 1/2 cups lukewarm milk
2 tablespoons white sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup molasses
2 tablespoons butter
3 1/4 cups rye flour
2 1/2 cups bread flour
2 tablespoons seeds (caraway, sesame, poppy, ect) optional
Dissolve yeast in warm water.
In a large bowl combine milk, sugar, and salt. Use a mixer to beat in molasses, butter, yeast mixture, and 1 cup of rye flour.
Use a wooden spoon to mix in the remaining rye flour. Add white flour by stirring until the dough is stiff enough to knead.
Knead 5 to 10 minutes, adding flour as needed. If the dough sticks to your hands or the board add more flour.
Cover dough and let rise 1 to 1 1/2 hours or until double.
Punch down dough and divide to form two round loaves. Let loaves rise on a greased baking sheet until double, about 1 1/2 hours.
Optional: brush with milk and sprinkle with seeds.
Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Bake for 30 to 35 minutes.

Soft Cheese Spread
8oz Small Curd Cottage Cheese
8oz Cream Cheese, softened
1 tablespoon White Wine Vinegar
1 teaspoon Rose Water
½ teaspoon salt
¼ teaspoon black pepper

Cream the cheeses until smooth.  Mix in remaining ingredients.

Cover and chill for at least an hour before serving.

Honey Butter

½ cup butter
2 tablespoons honey

Cream the butter.  Mix in honey.  Serve at room temperature.

Onion Relish

2 sweet onions
2 leeks
1 tablespoon prepared mustard
½ cup cider vinegar
½ cup water
¼ cup honey

Finely chop the onions and leeks.  Mix together with the mustard

Mix vinegar, water and honey.  Add to onions and refrigerate several hours before serving.